PCIe 4.0

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insertion-loss-budget-for-system-board
PCI Express® 5.0 Architecture Channel Insertion Loss Budget

The upgrade from PCIe® 4.0 to PCIe 5.0 doubles the bandwidth from 16GT/s to 32GT/s but also suffers greater attenuation per unit distance, despite the PCIe 5.0 specification increasing the total insertion loss budget to 36dB. After deducting the loss budget for CPU package, AIC, and CEM connector, merely 16dB system board budget remains. Within the remaining budget, engineers need to consider safety margin for board loss variations due to temperature and humidity.

redrivers
PCI Express® Retimers vs. Redrivers: An Eye-Popping Difference

A redriver amplifies a signal, whereas a retimer retransmits a fresh copy of the signal. Retimers provide capabilities such as PCIe® protocol participation, lane-to-lane skew compensation, adaptive EQ, diagnostics features, etc. Therefore, retimers particularly address the need for reach extension in PCIe 4.0 & PCIe 5.0 systems, where increased number of PCIe slots, multiconnectors, and long physical topologies lead to signal integrity (SI) challenges.